Rosa × damascena, more commonly known as the Damask rose is a rose hybrid, utilised during the history for its cosmetic and medicinal values.
The flowers are renowned for their fine fragrance, and are commercially harvested for rose essential oil ( "rose otto" or "rose absolute") used in perfumery and to make rose water and "rose concrete". The flower petals are also sometimes used directly to flavor food or to make tea and are considered safe for human consumption.
The largest producers of rose oil from the different names all falling under the name Rosa × damascena are Bulgaria and Turkey. France and India also contribute significantly to the world market. Morocco, Tunisia and some other Middle Eastern countries have historically produced rose oil, but their modern contribution is minimal.
For centuries, the Damascus rose (Rosa damascena) has been considered a symbol of beauty and love. The fragrance of the rose has been captured and preserved in the form of rose water by an ancient method that can be traced back to biblical times in the Middle East, and to the Indian subcontinent
Rose water was first produced by arab chemists in the medieval Islamic world through the distillation of roses.
In India, rose water is used as eye drops to clear them. People in India and other part of the World, use rose water , applied directly to the face for natural fragrance and moisturiser and for the treatment of acne.
The essential oil (Aetheroleum Rosae) and rose water obtained by the distillation of the petals of Rosa x damascena, are largely used in modern cosmetology and aromatherapy.
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